The researchers studied 77 overweight and obese women with an average age of 38 and randomly assigned them to receive either the daily vitamin D3 supplements or placebo for 12 weeks.
The researchers said that although vitamin D3 supplementation significantly increased 25(OH)D concentrations (a blood measure of vitamin D status), some participants in the vitamin D group did not reach sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations they wrote. They suggested that this may indicate 1000 IU is sub-par, and it may need higher doses or a longer period of time to see better blood levels.
In addition to fat mass reductions, data also showed that HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) levels increased in the vitamin D group, but decreased in the placebo group. Interestingly, LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol) levels displayed the same trend in the groups--increasing in the vitamin D3 group.
However, this increase in LDL was shown to be the type of LDL that is less susceptible to forming arterial plaque (yes, there are many sub-types, so not all LDL is the same).
Source: Vitamin D3 and the risk of CVD in overweight and obese women: a randomised controlled trial
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