GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Alterations in GABA receptors in the CNS are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly linked with functional bowel disorders.
In this new study, researchers showed that chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus (JB-1) induced region-dependent alterations in the brain GABA. More importantly, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behaviour.
Another observation was that the neurochemical and behavioural effects were not found in mice without a fucntioning vagus nerve (identifying the vagus as a major modulatory constitutive communication pathway between the bacteria exposed to the gut and the brain).
Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bi-directional communication of the gut–brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression.
Source: Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve
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